ABSTRACT

The
experiment entitled “Response of rose variety “Gruss-an-tepletz” towards various levels
of phosphorus” was conducted at the experimental field of
Floriculture program at Horticulture Research Institute (HRI) (National Agriculture Research Center Islamabad) during spring 2014.
The experiment was design in randomize complete block design. The experiment
was consisting of one factor i-e phosphorouseffect, of which five treatments
were made, which was replicated four times.The impact of
different levels of phosphorous on various stages of growth and flowering was
observed on plant growth and
flower production as a mean of achieving better management and production
on Rose variety “Gruss-an-teplitz”. Different plant growth and flowering parameters
were studied during experiment. Our results shows that the Application
of P significantly improved vegetative growth, promoted early flower, plant height, flower diameter, stem diameter,
number of flower plant-1, number of shoot plant-1and
fresh weight of flower. Maximum number of flower (29), number of branches
(3.5), diameter of flower (5.1), and flower weight(4.3) was achieved in
phosphorous level at the rate of 20 gm/m2 at T5. Maximum stem diameter (2.02)
and plant height (33.02) were measured at T2 with 10gm/m2.
It was also found that with increasing the concentration of phosphorous, both
number of flowers and fresh weight of flowers increases. The increase number of
flowers and flower weight means maximum income to the growers.

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Key
words: Growth of Rose; Phosphorus; Rose; Rose Flowering; Rose cultivation.

INTRODUCTION

 Rose (Rosa indica L)belongs to familyRosaceae. Rose is a woody perennial
flowering plant of the genus Rosa. There are over 100 species. They form a
group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that
are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are
usually large and showy, in colors ranging from white through yellows and reds 1.

Rose
is a beautiful flower of immense horticultural importance 1 due to its commercial
and ornamental value. There are two main prospects of production of roses, that
is, food products and cut flowers. Rosa Gruss-an-tepletzhas
double red color flowers and blooms in small clusters having a strong fragrance2. Predominantly, it is
used for fresh and dried petals, making of bouquets and wreaths3. Rose plants range in size from
compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height.
Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development
of the wide range of garden roses. Roses have a long and colorful history. They
have been symbols of love, beauty, war, and politics. The rose is, according to
fossil evidence, 35 million years old in nature4.

Roses are best known as ornamental plants
grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been
also used for commercial essential oil and perfumery as well as commercial cut
flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other
utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. They also have
minor medicinal uses. Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil,
which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the
crushed petals of roses. The rose hip, usually from R. canine is used as a
minor source of Vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels
of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement5. Roses are a preferred subject in art
and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as
architectural elements. The long cultural history of the rose has led to it
being used often as a symbol. Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly,
and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C.

Rose has many different species some are
Hulthemia, Hesperrhodos, Platyrhodon, Banksianae, Bracteatae, Caninae,
Carolinae, Chinensis, Gallicanae, Gymnocarpae, Laevigatae, Pimpinellifoliae,
Synstylae6.

Most species are native to
Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest
Africa. The genus Rosa has some 150 species spread throughout
the Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska to Mexico and including northern Africa 7.

Stem Cuttings using sharp scissors detach a
piece of stem 4-6 inches in length. Clear leaves from the base and place in
soil. You may also dip the end in rooting hormone if desired.Root CuttingsDig
up the parent plant when dormant and cut a large piece of root mass 2-3 inches
in length. Re-plant parent plant and root section. This method also may not
work in all rose plants and has a lower success rate than stem cuttings.A scion
with a dormant bud and a leaf was budded onto a single internode of rootstock.
After budding, the base of the rootstock was profitably treated for 30 s with
an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution at 2000 mg l?1. The budded cuttings
roots in a no. 3 perlite medium under a balance type mist system. Rooting of the
budded cuttings gives satisfactory results after one month8.

The technique used is whip grafting. A piece
of stem with a good stem diameter and a single dormant axillary bud is used as
a scion. A piece of stem consisting of single internodes without buds or leaves
is used as a rootstock. The rootstock type must be easy to root. The general
stage of ripeness of the material must be over just opening for the scions and
for the root stocks well-developed leaves and thorns which can be broken off
easily.The top of the rootstock internodes and the basal part of the scions are
cut at an angle of 30. Scion and internodes are combined and held together with
a clothes-peg for a good development of the graft union it is necessary that at
least at the side where the leaf is located the cambia of the graft partners
are in close contact9.

Irrigation is done once in 2 days until
plants establish and once a week thereafter. Avoid salt water for irrigation
purpose.Well-drained sandy loam with pH of 6-7 is suitable.Bright sunshine for
minimum of 6 hours is essential for the cultivation of roses. Day temperature
of 25C0 to 27C0 and night temperature of 14C0to
18C0 are ideal. It can be grown in the plains of Punjab and other
plan areas of the country where the optimum climates are available. After
pruning in October and again in July the plants are manure with FYM 4 kg and
6:12:12 g of NPK per plant1.Foliar application of 0.2% micronutrient
mixture containing 20 g MnSO4 + 15 g MgSO4 + 10 g FeSO4 + 5 g B  (2g of the mixture is dissolved in one liter
of water) can produce bright colored flowers10.

The best time of pruning is the period when
the activity of rose plant is least and the plant is dormant to near dormant
stage. Pruning time will depend on climatic conditions of the particular
region. The vigorous past season shoots are cut back to half the length 11.

Manually
collect the beetles and destroy during day time. Spray Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2
ml/l. Setup light trap to attract HolotrichiaandAnomala spp. to have check on
the insect pest.White grub Bud worm .Diseases Black spot disease Powdery mildew12.The plants will start flowering in the
first year and will give economic yield from the second year onwards.About 10 lakh
flowers/ha/year can be obtained1.

Worldwide Area under Floriculture, In terms of total area in production, Asia
-Pacific with an area of 2,44,263 ha accounts for nearly 60% of the total world
area which is estimated to be nearly 4,00,000 hectares. China and India have
large total areas under flower cultivation but only a small percentage of the
area is under protected cultivation as the production is mainly for the
domestic markets with large area under open field flower cultivation rather
than under protected cultivation, it is observed that in terms of area under
total flower production with respect to the world area, India has 26.62 % of area
but under protected cultivation the area is hardly measurable 13.

Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring
element in the soil and makes up only 0.5% of the plant’s weight. It is the one
element that is greatly affected by environmental factors that can limit uptake
by the plant. Only about 10 – 20% of the applied phosphorus is used by the
plant within the year it is applied. It doesn’t move easily through the soil
like nitrogen and potassium, it gets “tied up” and has to stay put (it moves
approximately one inch from its original placement, unless physically moved by
cultivation). Phosphorus encourages development of strong roots and blossoming,
adds strength to the stems, and overall plant maturity and is attributed to an
increase in disease-resistance. If the supply is too low, like nitrogen,
existing phosphorus moves from the older tissues to the younger ones.Phosphorous
increase the flower yield respectively 11% and oil content in flower 12% and
increase 4% perfumery value. It is important in to photosynthesis and is a
major constituent of proteins enzymes system. Encourages blooming and roots
growth. Increase the perfumery value 14.

Keeping in view the importance of phosphorus,
the current research “response
of rose variety “Gruss-an-tepletz” towards various levels of phosphorus” was carried out at National
Agriculture Research Center Islamabad. The following objective will be studied
during experiment.

 

Objective

1. To study the effect of phosphorus
application on growth and flowering of Rose variety.

2. To evaluate and standardize dose of
Phosphorous for profitable Rose production.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment entitled
“Response of rose variety “Gruss-an-tepletz” towards various levels of phosphorus” was conducted at the experimental field of
Floriculture program at Horticulture Research Institute (HRI) (National Agriculture Research Center
Islamabad) during spring 2014. The experiment was design in randomize complete
block design. The experiment was consisting of one factor i-e phosphorous. The
experiment was consist five treatment which were replicated four time. Every replication was expressed
with the symbol of “R” and treatment with “T”.  The expermental plot size of 1×2
m2 was
prepared for each replication (containing 20 Plants).

An experiment was conducted on a sandy loamy soil with a pH
value of 7.4 and 1.0% organic matter. Prior to this study, annual floricultural
crops were grown in the area where the experiment was conducted. The experiment
was conducted on two year old plants of Rose variety”Gruss-an-teplitz” to observe the impact of different levels of
phosphorous on various stages of growth and flowering. Prior to commencing the
experiment, the plants were pruned to equal height (1 foot) and planted on
well-prepared soil during 2nd week of December, 2013. Geometric dimensions in
terms of planting distance were 50cm between plant to plant in the rows 60cm
apart.

Source
of phosphorous was Single Super Phosphate (P2O5 =18%)
applied @ 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/plant”. The fertilizer was applied to
individual plants according to the treatments and then thoroughly mixed in the
soil followed by irrigation whereas other management practices like irrigation
and weeding were same for all treatments during entire period of study. Plants
were allowed to grow and data on different growth and flowering parameters of
rose were collected by adopting standard procedures during the conduct of the
experiment. The parameters that were measured during study are as follows.

Parameters

The
following parameter was studied during experiment.

Number of Shoots:

Number
of shoots was calculated randomly in each treatment for all replication by counting.

Number of Flowers Plant-1:

Number
of flower was calculated randomly in each treatment for all replication by
counting.

Weight of Flowers:

Average
weight of flowers was recorded randomly in each treatment for all replication
by weighting on electric balance and then average was calculated.

Flower Diameter (mm):

Flower
diameter was recorded randomly in each treatment for all replication by Vernier

Caliper.

Stem Diameter(mm):

Stem
diameter was recorded randomly in each treatment for all replication by Vernier
caliper.

Plant Height (cm):

Plant
heightwas measure randomly in each treatment for all replication through the
help of measuring tape from base to apex of the plant.

Statistical Analysis:

All
the data were statistically analyzed at 5% level of probability through
statistics software “statistix-8.1”.

Table A: Phosphorus levels applied
for per plant and per 20 plants.

Treatments

Phosphorous
gm/plants

gm/20
plants

T1

0g

0g

T2

5g

100g

T3

10g

200g

T4

15g

300g

T5

20g

400g

 

Results
and Discussion

Number of flower plant-1:

The mean data regarding number of flowers are presented in table 1
while analysis of variance table and original replicated data are presented in
table 1a and appendix I. The analysis of variance table showed that phosphorus
level has significantly affected number of flowers of rose.

The
mean data regarding quantitative traits in the form of flower numbers per plant
showed significant variation (p0.001). Maximum number of
branches/plant was observed at T5 (P: 20g/plant) with 3.5 branches
followed by T4 (15g/plant) with 3.0 branches. Minimum number of
branches plant-1 was observed by T1 (control) with 2
branches. By increasing the concentration of P the number of branches plant-1
increase significantly, this means that P have significant effect on number of
branches. The found result has maximum similarity with reported   results of 16observed
maximum number of branches with high application of phosphorus to the
plants. 

Flower Diameter (mm):

The
mean data regarding flowers diameter are presented in table 3 while analysis of
variance table and original replicated data are presented in table 3a and
appendix III. The analysis of variance table showed that phosphorus level has
significantly affected number of flowers of rose.

Diameter of flower varied
significantly (p>0.001) among all the treatments. Maximum mean flower diameter
was exhibited at T5 (P: 20g/ Plant) with 5.1mm followed by T4(P:
15gm/Plant) with 4.5mm and T3(P: 10gm/Plant) with 4.1mm
respectively. Minimum flower diameter was observed at T1 (Control)
with 3mm.17 illustrated
that phosphorus play a vital role in development of floral parts of plant.

Fresh Weight of Flower:

The
mean data regarding fresh flower weight are presented in table 3 while analysis
of variance table and original replicated data are presented in table 3a and
appendix IV. The analysis of variance table showed that phosphorus level has
significantly affected number of flowers of rose.  Maximum flower
weight was observed at T5 (P: 20g/Plant) with 4.3gm followed by T4
(P: 15g/Plant). Minimum flower weight was observed in T1 (control)
with 2.2 weight of flowers. This conclusion shows similarity with the findings
of18and 19got high weight of flower with
increasing in concentration of Phosphorus to the plant.

Stem diameter (mm):

The
mean data regarding stem diameter are presented in table 3 while analysis of
variance table and original replicated data are presented in table 3a and
appendix V. The analysis of variance table showed that phosphorus level has
significantly affected number of flowers of rose. Statistical analysis
showed that there is considerable difference among all the treatments.   Maximum stem diameter was observed at T2
(P: 5g/plant) with 2.02mm followed by T4 (P: 15g/plant) with
1.5mm. Minimum stem diameter was observed in T3 with 0.4mm, with
increasing concentration of P the stem diameter did not increased, this means
that P did not have effect on stem diameter. It might be due phosphorus is
essential component for stem growth 20
supported this fact in his experiment.

Plant height (cm):

The mean data regarding plant height are presented in table 3
while analysis of variance table and original replicated data are presented in
table 3a and appendix VI. The analysis of variance table showed that phosphorus
level has significantly affected number of flowers of rose.

Height
of plant varied with respect to treatments as maximum plant height on average
basis was observed at T2 (P: 5g/plant) with 50cm followed by T4
(P: 15g/plant) with 45.5cm. Minimum plant height was observed in T3
with 33.20cm, with increasing concentration of P the plant height did not
increased, this means that P  don’t have
effect on plant height. The same observations were recorded by 20.

Conclusion

Different
phosphorous doses were applied in different treatments and it was observed that
phosphorous have significant effect on Rose plant height and stem diameter,
number flowers, Fresh flowers weight, number of branches, flower diameter. It
is therefore recommended that standard dose of phosphorus may be applied in the
areas where phosphorus is deficient to get maximum flower yield. 

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