Highly efficient Power
Generation Using Peltier Module

 

Abstract- Generating electricity in present there is a
shortage of fossil fuel, oil, gas, etc. burning of these fuels causes
environmental problem like radio activity pollution, global warming etc. So
that these (coal, oil, gas) are the limiting resources hence resulting new
technology is needed for electricity generation, by using thermoelectric
generators to generate power as a most promising technology and environmental
free and several advantages in production. Thermoelectric coolers can convert
directly thermal (heat) energy into electrical energy. In this TEC there are no
moving parts and it cannot be produce any waste during power production hence
it is consider as a green technology. This Thermoelectric generator converts
waste heat in to generate electricity by this it can eliminate harmful emissions,
so we can believe this a green technology. Thermoelectric power generation
offer a potential application in the direct exchange of waste-heat energy into
electrical power where it is unnecessary to believe the cost of the thermal
energy input. The battery which is used can be recharged with the generation
inputs like Peltier. The battery is connected to the DC Boost Converter&
inverter. From this energy the ac motor can be controlled using inverter
design.

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Index Terms—Peltier module, waste-heat recovery, Thermoelectric
generator, seebeck effect.

 

1 INTRODUCTION

These days the
demand of electricity is rising tremendously with the growing industries and
household electrical appliances. To fulfill these daily requirements different
energy sources like coal, water, wind and solar energy are employed at a very
high cost. From all these sources, energy is extracted and utilized but the
demand for power is still at large. Even though the world is fast changing and
developing there are still many villages and far flung areas where electricity
is not reached and still a demand. From some the power generation method after
harvesting energy, heat is simply wasted as byproduct into the environment. If
such heat can be converted even in a small mill watt range, it can be reuse in
domestic low power lighting and in running low power consumption electronic
products. According to thermodynamics law of energy also known as law of
conservation of energy, energy cannot be created nor destroy but can be
transform from one form to another. A design flow is suggested for the proposed
network. Analysis is conducted regarding aspects of the design flow. Several
state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials are analyzed for the purpose of power
generation at each waste heat harvesting location on a vehicle. Optimal
materials and TE couple configurations are suggested. Besides, a comparison of
prevailing DC-DC conversion techniques was made with respect to applications at
each conversion level within the network. Furthermore, higher level design
considerations are discussed according to system specifications. Finally, a
case study is performed comparing the performances of the proposed network and
traditional single-stage system.

2. PELTIER MODULE

Different work
has been carried out recently by different experts to generate electricity from
heat source. When one side of the Peltier module is focus and heated by Fresnel
lens and the other side is attached with heat sink DC voltage can be obtained as
reported by 1. Another innovative and effective way to harvest power during
day time is by using highly concentrated solar disc to heat the hot junction
which is kept at the focus of the parabola dish as suggested by 2. To
overcome the problem of depletion of battery charge of Cell phones while
travelling, body heat is also converted into voltage to charge the battery 3.
And moreover in cooking gas the upper flame of the burner is use for conducting
heat and the surrounding part of the flame around the burner is wasted
normally. This wasted heat can also be converting into electrical energy as
presented by 4.

 

Figure 1.1 Simplified illustration of TEC.

 

3. EXISTING METHODS

Ø 
The reserves of fossil fuels will soon be
depleted, since oil is a limited resource.

Ø 
Over the years, the cost of electricity has
risen to unprecedented levels due the limited supply of oil and economic and
political factors.

Ø 
Wind energy, hydro energy and with other
technologies which have their own limitations, making them insufficient for
wider usage.

Ø 
 The most
important factors for choosing the kind of renewable generators are location,
time and user needs.

Ø 
Location associates information about climate,
energy sources availability and environment conditions, this information is
very important to decide.

4. PROPOSED METHOD

Ø 
In this project the conversion of waste heat
into generate electricity by using thermoelectric Cooler (TEC).

Ø 
Waste may refrigerator heat, vehicle radiator
heat, laptop heat, even body heat can be used as a input source as a waste heat
to generate electricity and it can be charged directly mobile battery and also
stored in a rechargeable lead acid battery for further usage.

Ø 
And also waste energy human body locomotion also
produce electricity body weight locomotion of the energy in to electrical
energy by using electromagnetic induction principle. The control mechanism
carries regulator circuit etc. and the power saving mechanism carries
microcontroller relays etc.

 

 

Fig: 4.1 System Block Diagram

 

 

 

4.1    Working

Ø 
When the two sides of semiconductor are
maintained with        different temperature,
the EMF is flows across the output                 circuit.

Ø 
As the heat moves from hot side to cold side,
the charge            carrier moves in the
semiconductor materials and       hence the
potential deference is created.

Ø 
The electrons are the charge carriers in the
case of N-type semiconductor and Hole are in P-type semiconductors.

Ø 
In a stack, number of P-type and N-type semiconductors
is connected.

Ø 
A single PN connection can produce a Seebeck voltage
             of 40 mV.

Ø 
The heat source such as natural gas or propane
are used for remote power generation

 

4.2   
Hardware
& Software

Ø 
PIC 16F877A

Ø 
Peltier Plate

Ø 
Driver Unit

Ø 
Transformer

Ø 
MAT lab

Ø 
Embedded ‘c’

 

5. GENERAL REVIEW OF DC-DC CONVERTERS.

  5.1
Principle of DC-DC Converters.

There are two
major concerns in the design of DC-DC converters: efficiency and regulation.
The issue of efficiency arises since almost all circuit has resistive components
or parasitic resistors, which are power consuming during the functioning of the
converter. That is to say, designers need to optimize the efficiency of the

Converter,
although efficiency can never reach 100%. The issue of regulation is caused due
to the fact that all power sources are not absolutely constant; however, many
electronics require a certain level of stability of power supply. Up until now,
there are already various design techniques and optimized components addressing
these issues.

The general
principle of DC-DC converters involves the storage of electrical energy into
components, such as capacitors and inductors, and the release of energy to
loads.  By controlling the time for
energy storage and release, average voltage level appeared at the converter
load can be controlled. The average load voltage level can thus be either
higher or lower than the voltage level of the power source.

 

The rotation of energy storage state and energy release state is
fulfilled by switching devices. Nowadays, the most common switching device used
in DC-DC converter is transistor. The length of time for each state within one
switching period is reflected by the duty cycle of the signal fed to the gate
of switching transistors. Almost all modern DC-DC converters utilize
pulse-width-modulation (PWM) signal as the switching control signal for its
advantage of linear control over the load power 30. If we denote the
switching period as Ts, and the on-time of the switching transistor Ton, the
duty cycle of the PWM signal is thus

 

5.2 Inverter

The inverter denotes  a 
class  of  power 
conversion  (or  power 
conditioning)  circuits  that 
operates with a dc voltage source or a dc current  source as input and converts it into ac
voltage or current. The inverter operates as  the reverse of ac -to-dc converter. Even
though input to an inverter circuit is a dc source, it is not uncommon to have
this dc derived from an ac source such as utility ac supply. The simplest dc voltage
source for a VSI  may be a battery bank,
which may consist of several cells in series-parallel combination.  Solar photovoltaic cells can be another dc
voltage source.  An  ac 
voltage  supply,  after 
rectification  into  dc 
will  also  qualify 
as  a  dc 
voltage  source.  All voltage source inverters assume stiff
voltage supply at the input. For  an  ideal 
input  (dc)  supply, 
with  no  series 
impedance, the dc link capacitor does not have any  role. However a practical voltage supply may
have considerable amount of output impedance. 
The  supply  line 
impedance,  if  not 
bypassed  by  a 
sufficiently  large  dc 
link  capacitor,  may 
cause  considerable  voltage 
spike  at  the 
dc  bus  during inverter operation.

 

Fig.5.2.1 Circuit diagram of VSI

 

5.3 Pulse width modulation

Output voltage
from an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control within the
inverter itself. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-width
modulation control used within an inverter.

In this method,
a fixed dc input voltage is given to  the  inverter 
and  a  controlled 
ac  output  voltage 
is  obtained by adjusting the on
and off periods of the  inverter  components. 
This is the most popular method 
of  controlling  the 
output  voltage  and  this  method 
is  termed  as 
Pulse-Width  Modulation  (PWM) Control.

 

6. CONCLUSION

The Seebeck
effect-based thermoelectric power source using TEC module has been presented in
this paper. One great advantage of the designed concept is that the TEC energy harvester
is employed to recover waste heat in industrial process as a renewable energy
source and green technology. Experimental results confirm that the designed
DC-DC boost converter is able to produce the desired output voltage for
powering other electronic circuit. A stage of DC-DC boost converter can be
connected to the designed DC-DC boost converter if higher output voltage is
required and inverter used for AC Applications.

 

REFERENCES

1 M. Jaegle,
“Multiphysics Simulation of Thermoelectric Systems – Modeling of Peltier-
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Monitoring Through GSM Technology” International Journal of Scientific &
Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 12, December-2012.

 3 BálintNémeth, SzilviaLaboncz, István Kiss
“Condition Monitoring of Power Transformers using DGA and Fuzzy Logic”,
Electrical Insulation Conference, 2009. EIC 2009. IEEE, pp373 – 376, 2009.

 4 Yann-Chang Huang and Chao-Ming Huang
“Evolving Wavelet Networks for Power Transformer Condition Monitoring”, Power
Delivery, IEEE Transactions on , Volume:17 , Issue: 2 , 2002. 5 Jeffrey
Snyder and Tristan S. Ursell, “Thermoelectric Efficiency and Compatibility”, Physical
Review Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, 2003.

5 Hongnan Fan,
Randeep Singh, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh Power Generation from Thermoelectric Cells
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6 T Stephen
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July 2014

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