Material Waste

 

 

 

Material
waste has 10 subdivisions:

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Paper: Paper is decomposed into fibers(pulp); they are filtered and
chemically treated to elimnate impurities and then used to create new paper
that subsequently
serves for different uses.

Glass: Firstly, any other materials like plastic, paper, organic left-over(food)
are separated and then the glass is crushed and melted. After this process,
glass is pure and it can be chemically treated to have various colors and
compositions.

Textiles(any
fabric fiber products, like clothes, household goods, or even unused material scraps
from clothing industry)

         Natural and
synthetic textile meterials are sorted and then chemically cleaned(to eliminate
impurities). Depending on their type(cotton or polyester, for example), they
are processed and new textile fibers are made. These new fibers are sent to the
industry units as raw materal.

Plastics:
This material can be recycled to produce new plastic goods or liquid fuel

        Plastic is
transformed into liquid fuel by “cross-alkane metathesis”, which is a process
to break the polymers’ bounds that form plastic mass. This method has been
developed by University of California, Irvine and Shanghai Institute of Organic
Chemistry’s scientists. Further credit is given in the “Sources” section

       Plastic can also be
melted(depending on the plastic type) to obtain new shapes and products,
through a process called Plasma Pyrolysis.

Putrescibles(including
food, dead plants or animals, manure)

       Two very important products can be obtained
by recycling putrescibles: biogas and biofertilizers.

·        
Anaerobic Digesters: they
transform waste into biogas fuel(mainly methane), which can be used to generate
electrical power for the industry systems.

·        
Digester which use enzymes: the
enzymes decompose the waste, so that the organic matter can be used to produce
nutrient-rich substances(these substances are very useful in Agriculture=biofertilizers)

Chemical Waste(including
fuel and oils): substances must beseparatelly processed. If not separated,
dangerous chemical reactions could happen; for example, combinations of
oxidizers and acids/metals may lead to toxic compounds.

Used oils contain many impurities and they can be very harmful
to the environment in case they aren’t recycled properly(even if there on Sileo
Ibis doesn’t exist a large amount of oil). By re-refining the oil, ethlyene
glycol can be obtained(this can be used as anti-freeze, heat-transfer agent or
even in polymers’ production). After dehydrogenation of waste oil, lighter
oil(which boils faster) is separated and it contains water and ethlyene glycol.
The rest of the oil(that is havier and doesn’t even reach boiling) goes through
Purification Systems and Hydrotreating Reactors in order for the carbon-chains
to become saturated with hydrogen. At the end of the process, the oil is safe
to use.

Metals:
firsly, ferrous metals are separated from non-ferrous and then the metals are
shredded, in order to minimize the amount of power(heat) used for melting; Then
electrolysis is used to purificate the material. Metal reach the solid state
after cooling and it is sent to industry as raw material.

Electronics: at the beginning of the recycle
system, other objects(batteries, toners, memory cards) which were attached to
the electronics are separated and sent to appropriate recycling/storing units.
Then the metals are shredded and separated by the Magnetic Separator.
Afterwards the metal is melted at high temperature(the melting
temperatures  differs depending on the
metal), compressed and then sent to industry’s units.

Wood:
firstly, metals,
plastics, papers(such as nails, design objects or labels) are separated from
wood and they are sent to the appropriate recycling units. Paints and varnished
are also removed. The wood(either pallets, sawdust or any other form) is then
shredded and eventually compressed(depending on purpose) to be used as a
secondary raw material.

Building materials(mainly
regarding ceramics): The pieces of material are
crushed and then instruments with magnets can be used to remove other
components(metals). The crushed material goes through a machine that works like
a mill: it grinds the materials till they become powder. This raw material is
then sent to the industry’s units to be used as building material.         

 

 All the waste is
collected separately(as established in the subdivisions) and transported from
every module through pipes to the Material Waste Processing Units. These units
filters the waste and process it in order to obtain raw materials for industry.
This way, the waste is wholy recycled to obtain new products.

        Regarding the spacecraft’s conditions and how
all the systems function, we calculated the percentages of every subdivision’s
waste amount per day(the percentages are estimated and they may slightly differ
from day to day, as the amount of waste can’t be exactly the same daily)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waste heat

 

 

        

         The reason why waste heat must be
recovered is because it has a great potential of producing electrical power.
There are machines that produce large amounts of waste heat(for example, the
machines used in industry) and others which produce smaller amounts of waste
heat(for instance, various electronics: laptop, refrigerators, TVs etc).

        Large
amounts of waste heat.Two significant components of the recovery system is
the Heat Exchanger(where two fluids can transfer heat from one to another;
without direct contact being necessary) and the Power Generator(where fluids raise
in temperature by using the waste heat; after the process, electricity is
conducted to the consumer)

         Smaller
amounts of waste heat. One way of saving this heat is by adding a
thermoelectric layer to the energy consumer: the waste heat is conducted to a
specific place where it is turned into electrical power. This way, the
machine/device uses electric power from it’s own waste heat.

           

 

 

 

 

 Material Waste

 

 

 

Material
waste has 10 subdivisions:

Paper: Paper is decomposed into fibers(pulp); they are filtered and
chemically treated to elimnate impurities and then used to create new paper
that subsequently
serves for different uses.

Glass: Firstly, any other materials like plastic, paper, organic left-over(food)
are separated and then the glass is crushed and melted. After this process,
glass is pure and it can be chemically treated to have various colors and
compositions.

Textiles(any
fabric fiber products, like clothes, household goods, or even unused material scraps
from clothing industry)

         Natural and
synthetic textile meterials are sorted and then chemically cleaned(to eliminate
impurities). Depending on their type(cotton or polyester, for example), they
are processed and new textile fibers are made. These new fibers are sent to the
industry units as raw materal.

Plastics:
This material can be recycled to produce new plastic goods or liquid fuel

        Plastic is
transformed into liquid fuel by “cross-alkane metathesis”, which is a process
to break the polymers’ bounds that form plastic mass. This method has been
developed by University of California, Irvine and Shanghai Institute of Organic
Chemistry’s scientists. Further credit is given in the “Sources” section

       Plastic can also be
melted(depending on the plastic type) to obtain new shapes and products,
through a process called Plasma Pyrolysis.

Putrescibles(including
food, dead plants or animals, manure)

       Two very important products can be obtained
by recycling putrescibles: biogas and biofertilizers.

·        
Anaerobic Digesters: they
transform waste into biogas fuel(mainly methane), which can be used to generate
electrical power for the industry systems.

·        
Digester which use enzymes: the
enzymes decompose the waste, so that the organic matter can be used to produce
nutrient-rich substances(these substances are very useful in Agriculture=biofertilizers)

Chemical Waste(including
fuel and oils): substances must beseparatelly processed. If not separated,
dangerous chemical reactions could happen; for example, combinations of
oxidizers and acids/metals may lead to toxic compounds.

Used oils contain many impurities and they can be very harmful
to the environment in case they aren’t recycled properly(even if there on Sileo
Ibis doesn’t exist a large amount of oil). By re-refining the oil, ethlyene
glycol can be obtained(this can be used as anti-freeze, heat-transfer agent or
even in polymers’ production). After dehydrogenation of waste oil, lighter
oil(which boils faster) is separated and it contains water and ethlyene glycol.
The rest of the oil(that is havier and doesn’t even reach boiling) goes through
Purification Systems and Hydrotreating Reactors in order for the carbon-chains
to become saturated with hydrogen. At the end of the process, the oil is safe
to use.

Metals:
firsly, ferrous metals are separated from non-ferrous and then the metals are
shredded, in order to minimize the amount of power(heat) used for melting; Then
electrolysis is used to purificate the material. Metal reach the solid state
after cooling and it is sent to industry as raw material.

Electronics: at the beginning of the recycle
system, other objects(batteries, toners, memory cards) which were attached to
the electronics are separated and sent to appropriate recycling/storing units.
Then the metals are shredded and separated by the Magnetic Separator.
Afterwards the metal is melted at high temperature(the melting
temperatures  differs depending on the
metal), compressed and then sent to industry’s units.

Wood:
firstly, metals,
plastics, papers(such as nails, design objects or labels) are separated from
wood and they are sent to the appropriate recycling units. Paints and varnished
are also removed. The wood(either pallets, sawdust or any other form) is then
shredded and eventually compressed(depending on purpose) to be used as a
secondary raw material.

Building materials(mainly
regarding ceramics): The pieces of material are
crushed and then instruments with magnets can be used to remove other
components(metals). The crushed material goes through a machine that works like
a mill: it grinds the materials till they become powder. This raw material is
then sent to the industry’s units to be used as building material.         

 

 All the waste is
collected separately(as established in the subdivisions) and transported from
every module through pipes to the Material Waste Processing Units. These units
filters the waste and process it in order to obtain raw materials for industry.
This way, the waste is wholy recycled to obtain new products.

        Regarding the spacecraft’s conditions and how
all the systems function, we calculated the percentages of every subdivision’s
waste amount per day(the percentages are estimated and they may slightly differ
from day to day, as the amount of waste can’t be exactly the same daily)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waste heat

 

 

        

         The reason why waste heat must be
recovered is because it has a great potential of producing electrical power.
There are machines that produce large amounts of waste heat(for example, the
machines used in industry) and others which produce smaller amounts of waste
heat(for instance, various electronics: laptop, refrigerators, TVs etc).

        Large
amounts of waste heat.Two significant components of the recovery system is
the Heat Exchanger(where two fluids can transfer heat from one to another;
without direct contact being necessary) and the Power Generator(where fluids raise
in temperature by using the waste heat; after the process, electricity is
conducted to the consumer)

         Smaller
amounts of waste heat. One way of saving this heat is by adding a
thermoelectric layer to the energy consumer: the waste heat is conducted to a
specific place where it is turned into electrical power. This way, the
machine/device uses electric power from it’s own waste heat.

           

 

 

 

 

 

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