The
world hates change, yet it is the only thing that has brought progress –
Charles Kettering ..

Starting
from this quote we can find out how changing is something refused by people At
first glance. It is because people all in all got afraid of change.

Management
is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling in any
organization. These four important functions help the organization to reach its
target and to develop its work.

Change
management techniques to manage the people side of change to achieve the
required business outcome as it merge the organizational tools that can be used
to help individuals make successful personal movement resulting in the adoption
and realization of change.

It
is very important for managers to motivate their employees to be creative where
it is the main part of managers job. Change is required from time to time in an
organization, because there must be external reasons that oblige for change in
order to be always up-to-date .

 

The success of an organization depends on many of the managerial
job. And in changing management, the work here is more about to train and
prepare the employees for the change that occurs in our business. As it is
known that the change usually is rejected by the employees for the first sight,
so managers here should help their employees to accept the change and toacclimate the new future state. These transitions have
exact steps and influenced by many actions. Moreover there are three levels of
change management; individual change management, organizational initiative
change management, and enterprise change management capability,Besides, change
management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change,
controlling change, and effecting change, also it refers to a systematic
approach to keeping track of the details of the system.

Change
is demanded by organization, it is important and helpful for its development,
growth, and continuity. So managers should change things in their work place
from one time to another, this is called organizational changes. It is about
new alternatives of people, technology, and structure. So changes take place in
all of these aspects. As there is two views that descripe the change process,
one image shows the organization as a large ship crossing a calm sea, where the
captain knows well where they’re going because they have made the trip many
times before. While the second view, is that you may imagine you self that you
are navigating a small raft in a powerful raging river, this is the image that
is usually given to companies operating in an environments that witness lots of
change. Furthermore, a change includes and affects many areas within the organization;
here are some aspects that may be affected by any change within the
organization: Schedule, Costs, Quality, Human resources,
communications, risk, Stakeholders

 

The change must be documented by the manager in each and every part
of it. This begins in writing and confirming change request. It must show up
that the manager and the person that request changes are both agreed for this
change.

 

 

 

 

Models:

In the models of change management, it is about simplifying the
change and how to achieve this change in an effective way, to make employees
understand the changing process. However, even if changes were done in an exact
planed way, we must be ready for any surprise. Experience and observation is a
good way to add to your plan as a project manager. Thus, the way you go about
implementing change will differ depending on the model used, but there are
basic steps that are important to follow that are common to personal or
organizational change. (Mark Connelly)

According to Kurt Lewin, there are factors that influence people to
change, and there are three stages needed to make change successful. Lewin’s
three stage theory of change is commonly referred to as Unfreeze, Change,
Freeze (or Refreeze), but be aware that the theory has been criticized for
being too simplistic. So, three stages are; unfreezing, transition, Freezing.

-Unfreeze: Reducing the
forces that are striving to maintain the status quo, and dismantling the
current mind set. Usually by presenting a provocative problem or event to get
people to recognize the need for change and to search for new solutions.

-Transition: Developing
new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through organizational
structure and process changes and development techniques. There may be a period
of some confusion as we move from the old ways of doing things to the new.

-Freeze: The final
stage of crystallizing and the adaptation of ownership of the new ‘as is’. The
organization may revert to former ways of doing things at this point unless the
changes are reinforced through freezing.

 

*Why Transformation Efforts Fail” in which Kotter discusses
eight mistakes organizations make that result in unsuccessful change.While the
article points to reasons change can fail Kotter also refers to eight phases
that are necessary for effective change.

These are Kotter’s 8-Step Model for effective change:

·        
Establish
a Sense of Urgency

·        
Creating
the Guiding Coalition

·        
Developing
Vision and Strategy

·        
 Communicating the change vision

·        
Empowering
Broad Based Action

·        
Generating
Short Term Wins

·        
Consolidating
Gains and producing More Change

·        
Anchoring
New Approaches in the Culture

 

Kotter recognize the importance of creating a sense of urgency in
order to avoid complacency regarding change. For Build a Guiding Coalition, The
Guiding Coalition is central to the network and consists of volunteers
representing all levels, departments and skills in the hierarchy. All members
are equal. For Form a Strategic Vision and Initiatives. The vision statement is
created and is focused on capitalizing on the identified big opportunity. It
appeals to people’s emotions and sets out strategic initiatives to achieve that
vision. To tell about Enlist a Volunteer Army: It’s the Guiding Coalition’s
responsibility to communicate the vision and the strategy in such a way that
employees buy into the message, commit to it, and feel motivated to volunteer
to be a part of the change. The fifth step is aboutEnable Action by Removing
Barriers, Anything that gets in the way of achieving the vision is identified
and solved. Kotter sees suitably qualified and skilled members of the network.
Then, Generate Short Term Wins, it is the Guiding Coalition must celebrate and
communicate visible and significant short term wins in order to generate
motivation and confirm that decisions and actions are benefiting the
organization. Now Sustain Acceleration, Kotter believes the sense of urgency
around the big opportunity must be maintained with new projects, themes and
volunteers in order to invigorate people and the process. The final step here
is Institute Change; Change needs to be assimilated into the organization. It
needs to be normalized in the culture of the organization and the link made
between the change and organizational success.

 

Besides, when you hear the name Elisabeth Kubler-Ross it’s usually
because of her influential work on death and dying. In 1969 she described five
stages of grief in her book “On Death and Dying”. These stages
represent the normal range of feelings people experience when dealing with
change in their own lives or in the workplace.

The five stages of Keble-Ross wrote about are:

Shock or Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression , Acceptance

-shock
is usually a temporary defense that gives us time to absorb news of change
before moving on to other stages. It is the initial stage of numbness and
shock. so, if we can pretend that the change is not happening, if we keep it at
a distance, then maybe it will all go away.(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

 

-Anger:
when we realize that the change is real and will affect us our denial usually
turns to anger. Now we get angry and look to blame someone or something else for
making this happen to us. You might find you are more irritable towards
colleagues or family. You’ll notice others finding fault with the smallest
things. .(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

 

-Bargaining:
this is a natural reaction of those who are dying. It’s an attempt to postpone
what is inevitable. We often see the same sort of behavior happening when
people are facing change. Thus, we start bargaining in order to put off the
change or find a way out of the situation. In a work situation someone might
work harder and put in lots of overtime to prove themselves invaluable in order
to avoid retrenchment. .(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

 

-Depression:
When we realize that bargaining is not going to work the reality of the change
sets in. At this point we become aware of the losses associated with the change
and what we have to leave behind. Then, the depression stage is often
noticeable in other ways in the workplace, while people dealing with change at
work may reach a point of feeling demotivated and uncertain about their
future.(Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

 

-Acceptance:
As people realize that fighting the change is not going to make it go away they
move into a stage of acceptance. It is not a happy space, but rather a resigned
attitude towards the change, and a sense that they must get on with it.
Acceptance can be a creative space as it forces people to explore and look for
new possibilities. (Elisabeth Kubler-Ross)

 

Change
Management Process

change management is set of steps or activities that a change
management team follow to apply change management to a change in order to
ensure the project meets its intended outcomes and drive individual
transitions.

 There are nine elements have
been identified as key elements of a successful change management process.
These elements are arranged into  3-phase
process

-Phase1: Preparing of Change is that change managers have to put
strategies, prepare their team, develop sponsorship model.

-Phase2: Managing Change is that change managers have to develop their
plan, take action and then put the plan on action.

-Phase3: Reinforcing Change is about collecting and analyzing feedback,
manage resistance, implement corrective actions and celebrate success.

 

 

 

 

there
are the nine elements of a successful change management process that are the
following:

1.
READINESS ASSESSMENTS

2.
COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION PLANNING

3.
SPONSOR ACTIVITIES AND SPONSOR ROADMAPS

4.
CHANGE MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR MANAGERS

5.
TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY

6.
RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT

7.
EMPLOYEE FEEDBACK AND CORRECTIVE ACTION

8.
RECOGNIZING SUCCESS REINFORCING CHANGE

9.
AFTER-PROJECT REVIEW

 

1.
READINESS ASSESSMENTS: There are tools that helps the change management team to
find out how much is the organization ready for the change.it can include
organizational assessment , culture and history assessments, employee
assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. As it is emportant to
check the strength of the change management team before taking the step to let
them effectively lead the change process. (Prosci)

 

2.
COMMUNICATION AND COMMUNICATION PLANNING: There are some managers have their
conviction that putting the employees in a clear vision and talking clearly to
them is enough to get their job done. Moreover communication planning,
therefore, begins with a careful analysis of the audiences, key messages and
the timing for those messages. So the change management team must design a
communication plan that addresses the needs of frontline employees, supervisors
and executives. (Prosci)

 

3.
SPONSOR ACTIVITIES AND SPONSOR ROADMAPS: The change management team must
develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key business leaders carry out
these plans.Business leaders and executives play a critical sponsor role in
times of change, then research shows that sponsorship is the most important
success factor. (Prosci)

 

4.
CHANGE MANAGEMENT TRAINING FOR MANAGERS: Manager has more influence over
an employee’s motivation to change than any other person, so they play a key
role in managing change. Also, managers can be the most difficult group to
convince of the need for change and can be a source of resistance. Individual
change management activities should be used to help these managers through the
change process.(Prosci)

 

5.
TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY: Ensuring impacted people receive the
training they need at the right time is a primary role of change management.
This means training should only be delivered after steps have been taken to
ensure impacted employees have the awareness of the need for change and desire
to support the change. Change management and project team members will develop
training requirements based on the knowledge, skills, and behaviors essential
to implement the change. (Prosci)

 

6.
RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT: Resistance from employees and managers is normal
and can be proactively addressed. Persistent resistance, however, can threaten
a project. The change management team needs to identify, understand and help
leaders manage resistance throughout the organization. Resistance management is
the processes and tools used by managers and executives with the support of the
change team to manage employee resistance.(Prosci)

 

7.
EMPLOYEE FEEDBACK AND CORRECTIVE ACTION: Feedback from employees as a change is
being implemented is a key element of the change management process. Change
managers can analyze feedback and implement corrective action based on this
feedback to ensure full adoption of the changes.(Prosci)

 

8.
RECOGNIZING SUCCESS REINFORCING CHANGE: Individual and group recognition is a
necessary component of change management in order to cement and reinforce the
change in the organization. Continued adoption needs to be monitored to ensure
employees do not slip back into their old ways of working.(Prosci)

 

 

 

 

9.
AFTER-PROJECT REVIEW: The final step in the change management process is the
after-action review.This is part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of
change management for your organization and ultimately leads to change
competency. It is at this point that you can stand back from the entire
program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the
next project.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 As I said at the beginning of my research that
it is so normal for humans to resist change, we are actually flexible
creatures.After a bit of time from the change, we can follow up and be creators
and succeed. Thus, change management requires understanding how people
experience change and what they need to change successfully. People involved in
change will need to recognize that change is risky; change can be scary; change
can often entail the real desire and need to slip back into the comfort zone,
so the main manager’s duty in dealing with people involved in the change
process is to require patience, gentle humor, respect, understanding, and
support.However, driving successful individual transitions should be the
central focus of the activities in organizational change management.Since
change management capability is that individuals embrace change more quickly
and effectively, then the organizations are able to respond quickly to market
changes, embrace strategic initiatives, and adopt new technology more quickly
and with less productivity impact. This capability does not happen by chance,
but requires a strategic approach to drive in change management across an
organization. Finally, among the change process, are managers tracking their
employee perceptions throughout the change? Or change requirements are just
dictated within employees?

 

 

 

Post Author: admin