Various
traumatic events, such as terrorist attacks, have caused the international
system to struggle to comprehend with the changes that have been bought about
as a result (Parker, 2002). Understanding, global security as a whole has and
is now being questioned by the public due the common feeling of uncertainty and
being unsafe. HIV/AIDS scientists and researchers are as a result threatened
and failing to maintain the public interests in the long-term security concerns
and issues of the disease, as the repercussions are less visible in contrast
with other events, such as terrorism. In debates regarding human safety and
well-being, HIV/AIDS is rarely on the topic agenda, despite the leading role of
the United Nations continuously emphasising the importance of funding and the
fight against infectious diseases (Parker, 2002).

            Over recent years, new statistics
published in the UNAIDS Annual Report has highlighted the urgency to increase
the public spending to fight against the disease. Common knowledge and
agreement between the global communities is that much more is required to
effectively address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In doing so, public spending and
political will needed to increase within developing countries and developed
countries are also required to increase the levels of foreign aid offered
(Rowden et al., 2004). One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals
agreed upon by international foreign aid donors is to lessen and begin to
reverse transmission of HIV/AIDS in low income countries by 2015. Whilst
foreign aid is expected to increase as other UN Millennium Development Goals
are achieved, researchers are also beginning to question whether the developing
countries will even be able to accept them (Rowden et al., 2004). However, the
differences between the increasing understandings that developing countries
need to maximise their public health systems to effectively fight HIV/AIDS and
the on-going authority of structural adjustment policy reforms required of
developing countries who receive loans from the IMF, is a rising and unsolved conflict
(Rowden et al., 2004). The economic policy reforms added by the IMF are have
been used as binding loan conditions for low income countries; also known as
the Washington Consensus (Rowden et al., 2004). The Washington Consensus
consists of a range of free market economic ideas e.g. privatisation,
deregulation, trade liberalisation etc., supported by international organisations
and prominent economists e.g. World Bank, IMF and the US. The policies also aim
to maintain low inflation rates, less than 10% (Rowden et al., 2004).

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            Rowden et al., (2004) explored the
reasons why the IMF insists on low inflation and it’s associated with fighting
HIV/AIDS. The IMF defines macroeconomic stability as having “current-account
and fiscal balances consistent with low and declining debt levels, inflation in
the low single digits and rising per capita GDP” (Rowden et al., 2004).
Maintaining macroeconomic stability in the global economy is the IMF’s primary goal,
and the organisation insists that in order to achieve this aim their borrowers
uphold low inflation rates. Increasing public health spending to enable
countries to fight HIV/AIDS is not of primary importance to the IMF. Over the
years, critics have been highly controversial about the conditions of the
loans, especially in regards to the fight against HIV/AIDS. The IMF conditions compels
developing countries to limit public spending costs, which in turn compels
levels of public health expenditures. HIV/AIDS activists are often in direct
conflict with the objectives of the economic policies, as they aim to
significantly increase public health spending (Rowden et al., 2004).

            To conclude, researchers are now
hoping that a new concern and identification of the global significance of the
HIV/AIDS epidemic, will arise within the rapidly changing context, by promoting
the understanding of economic and social processes that have intensified the
health threats which endanger the majority of the world’s population. In past
decades, various health development models have been practiced. It has been
identified that an important role for public health research is to build the academic
bridges that are vital for the understanding future health consequences, and
also to recognise the ways in which the models have the potential to contribute
to forms of doubt that are ever-present in today’s world (Parker, 2002).  The future of the world’s population and the
global HIV/AIDS epidemic increasingly relies on the ways in which nations unite
and confront the dilemma (Parker, 2002). A deeper investigation of the above
statistics proves that the availability of treatment where often inadequate and
limited, and the current work of international organisations, has in turn
worsened the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

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